Are you struggling with acne and wondering how to treat it? Most of us have battled with acne at some point in our lives, but not to worry, there are many solutions available! A healthy diet rich in vitamin C from fresh fruits and vegetables is a good place to start for overall wellbeing and healthy skin. Let’s find out more about vitamin C and try to answer the question: does vitamin C help acne?April 28, 2022 5:14 pm February 17, 2022 4:49 pm
What is acne?
Acne vulgaris is a fairly common skin condition that affects most of us at some point throughout our lives. It involves blockage and/or inflammation of pilosebaceous units ( i.e. hair follicles and their sebaceous – oil producing – glands).(1)
For many people who develop this condition, it often begins at puberty and during teenage years, for others however the onset can take place in adulthood.
Acne appears as spots on the skin’s surface, accompanied by oil production, redness and sometimes pain. Most people with acne develop the condition on their face, over half of people with acne have it on their back, and about 15% of people with acne have it on their chest.(2)
There are multiple types of spots caused by acne that can appear on the skin, from blackheads to whiteheads to the most severe type: cysts, these are large lumps that, if left untreated, can increase the risk of permanent scars.
Acne can range from mild to severe and it’s important to understand what type of acne affects an individual in order to treat it. If your acne is mild, speaking to your pharmacist for some over the counter treatments may be enough, however if you feel that your condition is more severe and/or causing you psychological distress, see your GP for advice and support.
What causes acne?
There are several causes of acne which can vary between individuals. Family history is a major determinant of whether or not you will develop acne in your life, if either one of your parents had acne it is more likely that you will also be affected by it.
Hormones are one of the main factors which explain why most people first develop acne during their teenage years. During puberty, our bodies produce hormones called androgens which enlarge our skin’s oil glands which can subsequently clog our pores and lead to acne.
However, acne can appear at any age and start before puberty. About 1 in 5 newborns develop neonatal acne in the first month of life. Some children develop a form of acne called infantile acne between 3 and 6 months of age which can cause permanent scars, however this is rare.(3)
Unfortunately, acne has become increasingly common in women over the age of 25 who developed acne with puberty and continue to be affected by it as adults.
For some of us, acne can worsen under stress, when we get insufficient sleep, eat certain foods or use certain products on our skin.
Fortunately, with today’s medical advances and resources, everyone can be treated successfully for their acne concerns with the help of an experienced health professional.
What are the main treatments?
Depending on the causes and the severity of your acne, there are several treatments available in western medicine to treat this condition if you choose to follow this path. Some people also choose to focus on their diet in order to improve their skin. One approach does not exclude the other and you can also choose to follow one or both depending on your needs and preferences.
It often takes months before any improvements are seen and there are no overnight cures for acne, but with the appropriate treatment it is possible to significantly improve symptoms over time.
For very mild acne, over the counter creams and gels may be sufficient to clear up spots, talk to your pharmacist who can advise the best option for you. If your acne is moderate or more severe, the first step is talking to your GP to find the most appropriate care plan tailored to your needs. You may be referred to a dermatologist if required.
GPs and specialists can prescribe medicines that address acne in different ways, from topical creams such as retinoids to antibiotics, the oral contraceptive pill and for the most severe cases: isotretinoin.
Aside from medication, there are also some non-medical treatments including photodynamic therapy which consists of applying light to the skin in order to destroy abnormal cells.(4)
In addition, some people use chemical peels which leads to skin shedding and new skin generation. It must be noted that these non-pharmaceutical treatments may not be as effective and are not necessarily carried out by a healthcare professional.
How is vitamin C linked to acne?
Vitamin C (also known as ascorbic acid) is a water-soluble vitamin, it dissolves in water but is not stored in the body, therefore it must be taken daily through food consumption. This powerful antioxidant is naturally found in many fruits and vegetables.(5)
Normal skin actually contains large amounts of vitamin C, which supports collagen production and provides antioxidant protection against harmful UV rays. Vitamin C also plays an important role in wound healing.
Collagen, a protein naturally found in connective tissue, is found throughout the body and namely in skin. While the science is clear on the role of vitamin C in collagen production, the specific link between vitamin C and acne requires further investigation.(6)
A recent literature review studied the relationship between acne and intake of certain dietary nutrients. It was found that among other vitamins and minerals, vitamin C was shown to have a positive effect in the treatment of acne.(7)
The researchers found that vitamin C shows anti-inflammatory effects, wound healing and anti-hyperpigmentation properties. It must be noted however that vitamin C appeared more effective when administered as a topical treatment as opposed to oral intake.(7)
Can taking vitamin C help treat acne?
The relationship between diet and acne has long been discussed and the literature is somewhat conflicting regarding the precise effects of diet on acne.
However, there is evidence to suggest that certain dietary patterns and habits may play a role in the development, duration and severity of acne vulgaris.
A systematic review spanning the past 10 years of research has shown that certain foods are “acne-protective”, specifically fruits and vegetables. These foods contain a myriad of vitamins and minerals that are beneficial for our health, so it is not surprising that they may also positively influence acne vulgaris.(8)
In addition, vitamin C is shown to assist with wound healing so this may potentially benefit the appearance of acne wounds, however this requires further investigation.(6)
Should I start taking vitamin C to treat acne?
There are several treatments available to treat acne which can be discussed with your pharmacist or GP, many of which have been backed by science to demonstrate their effectiveness.
Whilst vitamin C is beneficial for many aspects of our health, there is not enough evidence to suggest that oral intake of vitamin C is an effective treatment for acne. However, vitamin C is an essential part of our diet so it is definitely recommended for maintaining overall health.
Naturally occurring vitamin C in food
Fruits and vegetables are the best natural sources of vitamin C. Citrus fruits and strawberries, tomatoes and cruciferous vegetables are some of the highest sources of this powerful antioxidant.(5)
Vitamin C is also an incredible nutrient to combine with iron found in plant-foods in order to increase iron absorption! Given that iron found in plants is less efficiently absorbed than iron found in animal products, a little help from vitamin C can boost how much our bodies absorb.
Try adding a splash of lemon juice or some bell peppers to a baby spinach salad to enhance nutrient absorption. Delicious and nutritious.
Bergamot, a fragrant Italian citrus fruit, is a great source of vitamin C. Bergamot juice is a refreshing and healthy way to get vitamin C into your diet! Sea buckthorn is another great source of this antioxidant which provides a refreshing citrus taste.
For most people, following a balanced and varied diet should provide all their vitamin C requirements. The daily Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for adults aged 19 years and above is 90 mg for males and 75 mg for females. For pregnancy and lactation, the daily amount is 85 mg and 120 mg respectively. For reference, 1 medium orange provides 70 mg of vitamin C.(9)
Given that vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin, it cannot be stored in the body and therefore it must be taken daily through foods in the diet.
It is unlikely to take too much vitamin C through diet alone although it can be possible to overdose on vitamin C supplements. Taking large amounts of 1000 mg per day can lead to unwanted symptoms such as stomach pain, diarrhea and flatulence.(10)
“ Vitamin C […] supports collagen production and provides antioxidant protection against harmful UV rays”
Vitamin C intake and healthy skin
Many researchers have looked into the effects of nutrition on skin health. A systematic review of nutritional intake and skin appearance found that in most reputable studies, high intakes of fruit and vegetables, which contain vitamin C, were associated with improved skin elasticity, skin roughness and color.(11)
It has been shown that Vitamin C levels are suboptimal in individuals with skin inflammation. Many conditions, including acne, can cause skin inflammation. Vitamin C is often used in anti-inflammatory treatments in combination with other active ingredients and as a part of nutrition studies however the research still needs to investigate its individual impact on inflammation.(12-14)
In any case, the science clearly shows that vitamin C is an integral component of healthy skin and is necessary for normal connective tissue structure and function.
Can vitamin C help with scarring?
Some people can experience long-term scarring on their face or body due to acne. This is sometimes the case with more severe acne such as cystic acne which causes a pitted appearance in the skin. Scars form when wounds to the skin heal and leave a permanent mark. By treating a wound as early and effectively as possible, scarring can be reduced.
Due to inflammation and increased collagen requirements caused by acne wounds, vitamin C turnover can be negatively impacted. Therefore increased nutrient intake of vitamin C has been shown to be beneficial.(15)
Vitamin C and E supplementation has been shown to help wound healing in cases of severe burns (16) and topical application of vitamin C has shown reductions in the appearance of permanent scars.(17)
There are many treatments available on the market to treat all type